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22november1963.org.uk :
An Introduction to the JFK Assassination

  • A Brief Guide to the JFK Assassination

    A concise, readable and fully referenced account of the central issues in the JFK assassination, available as a paperback and an ebook in two formats: .mobi, for Kindle software and devices, and .epub, for other ebook–reading software and devices.

  • Who Killed President Kennedy?

    Home page: the basic facts of the JFK assassination, and Lee Harvey Oswald’s alibi, which places him on the ground floor a few minutes before the shooting.

  • Did Oswald Kill Kennedy?

    The reasons why the public doubted the lone–nut hypothesis, and the series of official investigations into the assassination.

  • How Did Oswald Shoot JFK?

    An examination of the case against Oswald: that all the shooting came from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository; that Oswald was there with a rifle at the time of the assassination; and that it was physically possible for one gunman to have caused all the injuries with three shots.

  • The Single–Bullet Theory

    Evidence for and against the Warren Commission’s single–bullet theory: Governor Connally was shot after President Kennedy had already been wounded, and Kennedy’s back and throat wounds did not line up with the sixth floor of the TSBD.

  • The Rifle and Paraffin Tests

    More problems with the case against Oswald: the sixth–floor rifle could not be fired with sufficient accuracy, and paraffin tests showed that Oswald had not fired a rifle that day.

  • Was Oswald Framed?

    The magic bullet, Commission Exhibit 399, could not have caused Connally’s injuries, and had been dishonestly placed into evidence.

  • “A Little Incident in Mexico City”

    Oswald’s impersonation at the Soviet and Cuban diplomatic compounds in Mexico City implicated those regimes in President Kennedy’s assassination, and led to conspiracy theories that threatened certain institutions. The need to extinguish these theories prompted the creation of the lone–nut hypothesis and the Warren Commission.

  • Silvia Odio’s Visitors

    Oswald or an impostor visited Silvia Odio in Dallas; the visit overlapped with Oswald’s trip to Mexico City; a telephone call implicated Oswald in the assassination.

  • The Career of Lee Harvey Oswald

    Oswald had defected to the Soviet Union, yet was welcomed back to the US; he worked in New Orleans as a pro– and anti–Castro activist; and he was interested in purchasing weapons by mail order.

  • The Verdict: Guilty or Not Guilty?

    A list of some of the unlikely events that would have to have happened for Oswald to have been the lone assassin.

  • JFK Assassination Conspiracy Theories

    Some of the most popular JFK assassination conspiracy theories: Lyndon Johnson did it, J. Edgar Hoover did it, anti–Castro Cubans did it, the mafia did it, and more.

  • The Political Context

    The relation between President Kennedy’s assassination and his role within the political system; the important distinction between a coup d’état and a conspiracy.

  • Further Reading About the JFK Assassination

    An introduction to some of the worthwhile books written about the JFK assassination, with links to other websites.

  • JFK Assassination Books Online

    A selection of books and ebooks about the JFK assassination, with links to online booksellers.

  • The Medical Evidence

    Problems with President Kennedy’s autopsy, and with the theory that his body was surgically altered between Dallas and Bethesda.

  • The Zapruder Film: Genuine or Fake?

    Arguments against the notion that the Zapruder film was faked; the problems that absurd conspiracy theories cause to rational critics of the official case.

  • Fiction, Propaganda and the Media

    The print and broadcast media’s attitude to the JFK assassination; criticism of Gerald Posner’s Case Closed and Vincent Bugliosi’s Reclaiming History.

  • JFK Assassination FAQs

    Topics that are not central to the case against Lee Oswald as the lone assassin of President Kennedy, but which some people find interesting.

    • JFK Assassination: What are the Main Issues?

      A summary of the essential points of the JFK assassination, with links to other pages for those who would like to find out more.

    • Did Lee Harvey Oswald Kill Officer J.D. Tippit?

      Tippit was shot dead about 40 minutes after the events in Dealey Plaza. Oswald was accused of the murder.

    • Why Did Oswald Kill President Kennedy?

      Oswald admired JFK, and had no obvious reason to assassinate him. The Warren Commission had trouble finding a credible motive.

    • Was There a Plot to Kill JFK in Chicago?

      The FBI warned of a plot to kill Kennedy during his visit to Chicago three weeks before the assassination in Dallas. A lone nut was arrested.

    • Did Lee Harvey Oswald Shoot at General Edwin Walker?

      Oswald was accused of attempting to kill the extreme right–wing former general in April 1963.

    • Was Jack Ruby Involved in the JFK Assassination?

      According to rumours, Jack Ruby had known Lee Oswald before the assassination, and had helped to deliver a rifle to Dealey Plaza.

    • Where Did Oswald Shoot JFK From?

      There is no record of Oswald’s precise location at the time of the assassination.

    • Was Oswald on the TSBD Front Steps?

      James Altgens’s famous photograph shows Billy Lovelady, not Lee Oswald, in the TSBD doorway during the assassination.

    • Who Saw Oswald in the Sixth–Floor Window?

      Oswald matched a description given by Howard Brennan, but other, more credible witnesses described someone else.

    • How Reliable is the NAA Evidence?

      Neutron Activation Analysis was used on Oswald’s paraffin casts and on bullet fragments from JFK, Connally, and the car. Vincent Guinn claimed that NAA demonstrated evidence for only two bullets, but he was later shown to be mistaken.

    • Did Oswald Leave Any Fingerprints?

      Two book cartons next to the sixth–floor window contained Oswald’s fingerprints and palmprints, and the rifle contained his palmprint.

    • Was Oswald an Expert Marksman?

      Oswald was officially “a rather poor shot” when he was last tested in the Marines, in 1959. The lone gunman hypothesis required that he was a better shooter than expert riflemen from the US Army and the FBI.

    • Was the Cover–Up Part of the Plot?

      Oswald’s activities in Mexico City generated rumours that the assassination was a conspiracy. The only practical way to stop these rumours was to declare that Oswald was the lone assassin.

    • Did Oswald Try to Kill Richard Nixon?

      Marina Oswald, under pressure from the FBI, claimed that her late husband had planned to shoot the former vice–president, Richard Nixon. The Warren Commission realised that the story was an invention, but did not ask why Marina had made the claim.

    • Did Marina Oswald Have Bad Teeth?

      For some reason, people are curious about the state of President Kennedy’s alleged assassin’s wife’s teeth, a subject of no obvious importance.

    • How Accurate is Oliver Stone’s Film, JFK?

      The film JFK was accused of misrepresenting the historical record, although there were no serious problems with its treatment of the central issues in the JFK assassination.

    • Are There Factual Errors in Oliver Stone’s JFK?

      Some of the media’s accusations of factual errors in Oliver Stone’s JFK were valid. Other accusations were unfounded, some of them simply the result of misinterpreting reasonable dramatic licence.

    • Was the TSBD Sixth–Floor Paper Bag Genuine?

      A paper bag, which may have contained a rifle, may or may not have been found by the Dallas police close to the window from which Oswald supposedly shot at Kennedy.

    • Did Oswald Carry a Bag of Curtain Rods to Work?

      Lee Harvey Oswald carried a bag to work that may have contained his lunch, or a rifle, or some curtain rods.

    • What Do People Think About the JFK Assassination?

      Opinion polls show that the general population overwhelmingly rejects the media’s promotion of the lone–nut hypothesis.

    • What Is the Magic Bullet Theory?

      The Commission Exhibit 399 bullet is supposed to have caused substantial damage to JFK and Connally despite magically remaining almost intact itself, and to have magically changed direction twice.

    • What Did the Warren Commission Say about Jack Ruby?

      The Warren Commission claimed that Jack Ruby had no significant connections with organised crime, and that he had acted alone when murdering Oswald. The House Select Committee on Assassinations found evidence to the contrary.

    • What Caused Governor Connally’s Lapel Flap?

      Frame 224 of the Zapruder film shows Governor John Connally’s right lapel flapping. The flap may have been caused by a bullet that wounded JFK, or it may have been caused by a gust of wind.

    • Did the Warren Commission Investigate the JFK Assassination Properly?

      The Warren Commission’s conclusions were in place even before the Commission had been formed. It consistently misrepresented the evidence, and used official secrecy to hide embarrassing items of evidence.

    • Who Were the Dealey Plaza Tramps?

      The three scruffy men who were arrested on the afternoon of the assassination and paraded through Dealey Plaza turned out to be tramps who had had nothing to do with the shooting of President Kennedy.

    • What is the Case Against a Conspiracy?

      A summary of the main arguments against the idea that the JFK assassination was the result of a conspiracy, as well as typical objections by supporters of the idea.

    • What is the Case For a Conspiracy?

      The reverse of the previous article: the main arguments in favour of a conspiracy, accompanied by objections from those who claim that Oswald did it by himself.

    • Did a Secret Service Agent Kill JFK by Accident?

      A theory first published in Bonar Meninger’s Mortal Error in 1992, and quickly discredited, was revived in 2013 in the film JFK: The Smoking Gun.

    • What is a Conspiracy Theory or Theorist?

      The terms ‘conspiracy theory’ and ‘conspiracy theorist’ have legal, everyday, and propaganda meanings. All are applied to the JFK assassination.

    • What Does Noam Chomsky Say about the JFK Assassination?

      Noam Chomsky, the prominent critic of US policy, does not think the JFK assassination is an important political event, or that it was the result of a high–level conspiracy.

    • Who Was George Joannides?

      George Joannides was the CIA officer who oversaw the Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil, which encountered Lee Oswald in New Orleans a few months before the assassination.

    • Why Did Oswald Deny Shooting JFK?

      Lee Oswald consistently denied that he had shot President Kennedy and Officer J.D. Tippit, denials that contradicted his supposed motive for committing those murders.

    • Why is the Media Coverage So Bad?

      The one–sided press coverage of the JFK assassination is largely responsible for containing popular disquiet about the weakness of the lone–nut hypothesis.

    • Was CE 399, the ‘Magic Bullet,’ Planted?

      Commission Exhibit 399, the bullet supposedly discovered on Governor John Connally’s stretcher in Parkland Hospital, may have been entered into evidence fraudulently after the assassination.

    • Did Lee Harvey Oswald Get a Fair Trial?

      Oswald’s trial by the Warren Commission and the media came with a pre–determined verdict. What might have happened if Oswald had not been murdered by Jack Ruby?

    • Why Was President Kennedy Assassinated?

      The possible motives of the main suspects behind the JFK assassination: Oswald, pro– and anti–Castro Cubans, the mafia, the CIA, and others.

    • Is Robert Vinson’s Story Credible?

      Robert Vinson, a former Air Force sergeant, claimed to have seen an Oswald double escape from Dallas in a CIA cargo plane. His account was used in James Douglass’s book, JFK and the Unspeakable.

    • Is the ‘Harvey and Lee’ Theory Credible?

      According to John Armstrong’s book, Harvey and Lee, Lee Harvey Oswald was in fact two people: ‘Harvey’, a Russian–speaking Hungarian, and ‘Lee’, an English–speaking American. Unfortunately, Armstrong’s case had been demolished, two decades before the book was published, by evidence from the exhumation of Oswald’s body.

    • What Was Lee Harvey Oswald’s Alibi?

      As far as we can tell from the incomplete official records, Lee Harvey Oswald claimed to have been on the first floor of the Texas School Book Depository during the assassination.

    • Who Is ‘Prayer Man’?

      A figure in the shadows of the TSBD steps during the assassination, known as ‘Prayer Man’, may well be Lee Harvey Oswald.

  • Other JFK Assassination Texts

    An introduction to a selection of official documents and other writings about the Kennedy assassination, presented for the first time in valid HTML.

    • JFK Assassination Documents

      A brief introduction to several official documents that illustrate controversial aspects of the JFK assassination.

      • Grassy Knoll Witnesses

        The official statements and testimony of those witnesses in Dealey Plaza who claimed to have detected shots from the general direction of the grassy knoll.

      • Parkland Hospital Press Conference

        The transcript of a press conference with two of the surgeons who had operated on President Kennedy in Dallas, in which it was stated that the president’s throat wound was caused by a shot from in front.

      • The Sibert and O’Neill Report

        The only surviving contemporaneous report of events at President Kennedy’s autopsy, by two FBI agents who contradict several aspects of the single–bullet theory.

      • Katzenbach: Memo to Moyers

        A memorandum by the deputy Attorney General, which suggested the formation of what became the Warren Commission.

      • President Johnson’s Phone Conversation with Joe Alsop

        The journalist Joe Alsop advised LBJ how the media could assist in legitimising the results of the criminal investigation.

      • Carolyn Arnold’s FBI Statements

        Carolyn Arnold was a witness to Oswald being on the first or second floor of the TSBD about 15 minutes before the shooting, at the same time as a gunman was seen on the sixth floor by Arnold Rowland.

      • Memo: Was Oswald an FBI Agent?

        J. Lee Rankin of the Warren Commission dealt with suggestions that Oswald had been a paid informant for either the FBI or the CIA.

      • Edgewood Arsenal Bullet Tests

        Ballistics tests indicated that the CE 399 bullet could not have caused Governor Connally’s injuries and remained virtually intact.

      • Wesley Liebeler: Memorandum

        Wesley Liebeler of the Warren Commission criticised a draft version of one chapter of the Warren Report.

      • Richard Russell and the Warren Report

        One of the Warren Commission’s members, Senator Richard Russell, objected to the Report’s conclusion that Oswald alone had committed the assassination.

      • CIA and Warren Report Critics

        An internal CIA document from 1967 proposed that criticism of the Warren Report should be opposed by the Agency’s network of what it called ‘propaganda assets.’

      • Dr Pierre Finck: Dissecting JFK’s Back and Throat Wounds

        One of the pathologists at President Kennedy’s autopsy testified that he and his colleagues were forbidden to dissect the back and throat wounds.

      • Richard Sprague: Memo re Dr George Burkley

        President Kennedy’s personal doctor contacted Richard Sprague of the HSCA, offering information about a possible conspiracy.

    • Bertrand Russell: 16 Questions on the Assassination

      One of the first informed criticisms of the Warren Commission and the official investigation into the assassination.

    • Mark Lane: Oswald Innocent? A Lawyer’s Brief

      Even before Bertrand Russell, Mark Lane produced the first substantial criticism of the early evidence against Oswald, with particular reference to the way the the press coverage would have prejudiced any jury, had Oswald survived to face a trial.

      • The Case Against Oswald

        Lane lists the fifteen elements of the official case against Oswald, as presented by Henry Wade, district attorney of Dallas.

      • Arguments Against Points 1–6

        The palm prints found on the rifle and a cardboard box do not identify Oswald exclusively; and paraffin tests were misleadingly alleged to show that Oswald had fired a rifle, when they showed that he probably had not.

      • Arguments Against Points 7–10

        Marina Oswald claimed to know about the rifle only after being interrogated by the Secret Service and FBI. Lee Oswald was not the only TSBD employee unaccounted for after the assassination.

      • Arguments Against Points 11–15

        The taxi driver who allegedly took Oswald to his lodgings was first named Darryl Click, then William Whaley. A map, supposedly owned by Oswald, which demonstrated the assassination, turned out not to exist.

      • Flaws in the ‘Airtight’ Case

        Lane points out that Oswald had no motive for killing Kennedy, and no plan to escape from the scene of the crime.

      • Oswald’s Conviction by the Press

        Lane laments the media’s prejudicial bias against Oswald, and notes that the accused assassin cannot have been responsible for the shot to President Kennedy’s throat.

      • Oswald’s Presumption of Innocence

        Lane reports the doubts of experts that one person could have fired three shots in the time available, and hopes that the Warren Commission would treat the matter more honestly than the media and the Dallas police.

    • Eric Norden: The Death of a President

      Eric Norden’s article in January 1964 for Minority of One dealt with many of the contradictions in the evidence that were obvious to early researchers.

    • Sylvia Meagher: Notes for a New Investigation

      Sylvia Meagher’s article for Esquire magazine in 1966 listed many of the witnesses who should have been interviewed by the Warren Commission.

    • Sylvia Meagher: The Curious Testimony of Mr Givens

      Sylvia Meagher argued that Charles Givens, a TSBD employee, was improperly persuaded to change his testimony several months after the assassination, to place Oswald on the sixth floor at a time when other witnesses placed him on a lower floor.

    • Lee Oswald: Speech in Alabama

      Oswald’s notes for a speech at a Jesuit college in Mobile, Alabama, in July 1963, together with recollections of his speech by a member of the audience.

    • George de Mohrenschildt: I Am a Patsy!

      George de Mohrenschildt was a much–travelled petroleum geologist who befriended Lee and Marina Oswald in Dallas in 1962 and 1963. His memoirs, written shortly before his death in 1977, include accounts of the troubled home life of the Oswalds, and touch on several aspects of the assassination.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 1

        De Mohrenschildt describes hearing the news of President Kennedy’s assassination, and of the arrest of his former protégé, Lee Oswald.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 2

        George de Mohrenschildt’s first impression of Lee Oswald, who had lived in Minsk, where de Morenschildt had lived as a child.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 3

        Lee Oswald tells George de Mohrenschildt about Minsk and his defection to the Soviet Union.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 4

        The Oswalds’ relationship with the de Mohrenschildt family.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 5

        An account of Lee and Marina Oswald’s emigration from the USSR to the USA.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 6

        Lee Oswald’s life in Minsk, and whether he was an undercover agent.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 7

        The first signs of trouble between Lee and Marina Oswald, and their views on religion.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 8

        De Mohrenschildt describes Lee Oswald’s anti–racist ideas, and Marina’s lifestyle.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 9

        Lee and Oswald separate, and the de Mohrenschildts help Marina move out.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 10

        Lee Harvey Oswald’s opinion of President Kennedy, and George de Mohrenschildt’s opinion of the FBI.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 11

        De Mohrenschildt claims that Lee Oswald told him about a letter, in which Oswald had threatened to blow up the FBI office in Dallas. There was such a letter, but it was written a few weeks before the assassination, long after the de Mohrenschildts had lost touch with the Oswalds.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 12

        Marina Oswald moves back in with Lee.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 13

        Lee and Marina Oswald attend a Christmas party given by Declan and Katia Ford.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 14

        The Oswalds attend a showing of the film taken by the de Morenschildts in central America, and are introduced to Ruth Paine.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 15

        Lee Harvey Oswald meets Admiral Chester Bruton, who worked at Collins Radio.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 16

        The de Mohrenschildts visit the Oswalds at Neely Street in Dallas, where they notice a rifle with a telescopic sight. George makes a joke about Lee having shot at General Edwin Walker.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 17

        George de Mohrenschildt claims to have checked with J. Walton Moore, “a government man in Dallas … probably a CIA agent, or possibly an agent of FBI,” who told him that Lee Oswald was “just a harmless lunatic.” Moore consistently denied even having heard of Oswald before the assassination.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 18

        The de Mohrenschildts are interviewed by Albert Jenner on behalf of the Warren Commission.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 19

        George de Mohrenschildt denounces a book which claimed that he had been a CIA agent.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 20

        He claims to have been misrepresented by the television company, NBC, in their series of programmes called The Warren Report.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 21

        After the publication of the Warren Report, the de Mohrenschildts return to Dallas. George claims that Lee Oswald was a patsy.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 22

        A photograph is discovered, showing Lee Oswald with a rifle and a pistol, and inscribed “This is the hunter of fascists! Ha! Ha! Ha!” George claims not to understand why Marina Oswald later refused to have anything to do with Ruth Paine.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 23

        George and Jeanne de Mohrenschildt are visited by two men claiming falsely to be from Life magazine.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 24

        De Mohrenschildt claims again that Oswald was a patsy, and expresses his displeasure with the Warren Commission.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 25

        An encounter with Willem Oltmans, a Dutch journalist, who was persuaded to cease investigating the Kennedy assassination. Oltmans, incidentally, played the part of George de Mohrenschildt in the film, JFK.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 26

        De Mohrenschildt’s early experience of the FBI, and the joke about Oswald having taken a pot shot at General Walker.

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 27

        De Mohrenschildt points out that Oswald was held in police custody for nearly two full days, yet no official records exist of his interrogation. He states that Oswald “was an actor in real life.”

      • I Am a Patsy: Chapter 28

        He repeats, and again denies, the allegations that he was employed by the CIA, for whom he supervised the Oswalds in Dallas.

    • Jim Garrison: Interview with Playboy

      In 1967, Eric Norden of Playboy interviewed Jim Garrison, to give him a chance to respond to the media campaign against his investigation into the New Orleans aspects of the JFK assassination.

      • 1: Accusations Against Garrison

        Newsweek and NBC alleged the attempted bribery of Alvin Beauboeuf and Fred Leemans two men involved in Jim Garrison’s investigation.

      • 2: The New Orleans Investigation

        Garrison claims that Clay, or Clem, Bertrand was in fact New Orleans businessman Clay Shaw.

      • 3: CIA and the JFK Assassination

        The suspicious death of Gary Underhill, who claimed that a small group within the CIA had been responsible for the JFK assassination; and the possibility that Lee Oswald and George de Mohrenschildt had worked for the CIA.

      • 4: Facts of the JFK Assassination

        The role of David Ferrie in the planning of the assassination, and the reason why Kennedy was killed: he was working toward a reconciliation between the US and the Soviet Union and Cuba.

      • 5: Lee Oswald and Guy Banister

        Although Oswald appeared to be a Marxist, he associated with the very right–wing Guy Banister at 544 Camp Street in New Orleans.

      • 6: Oswald’s Role in the Conspiracy

        Lee Harvey Oswald associated with anti–Castro Cubans, and was told to establish left–wing credentials which ended up incriminating him. He was a decoy, a patsy, and a victim.

      • 7: The Shooting in Dealey Plaza

        At least one shot came from behind the fence on the grassy knoll. The Commission Exhibit 399 bullet had been planted on a stretcher at Parkland Hospital.

      • 8: The Murder of Officer J.D. Tippit

        The bullets that killed Officer Tippit did not match Oswald’s revolver; Oswald did not shoot Tippit. Oswald was impersonated in Dallas shortly before the assassination.

      • 9: Lee Harvey Oswald and the FBI

        There is no evidence that Oswald was more than a petty informer for the FBI, although his relationship with FBI agent Warren de Brueys, who dealt with anti–Castro Cubans, remains unexplained. Oswald’s association with the CIA may have been different.

      • 10: Gordon Novel and the CIA

        Gordon Novel worked for the CIA on anti–Castro activities, with David Ferrie. He fled New Orleans, and Garrison was unable to extradite him from Ohio.

      • 11: Jack Ruby

        Ruby killed Oswald, whom he knew, to silence him, and was motivated only by money. He had links to anti–Castro Cubans.

      • 12: David Ferrie

        Ferrie was an anti–Castro activist. Garrison suspected that he had been involved in the Kennedy assassination, and that Ferrie̵s own apparent suicide was suspicious.

      • 13: Jim Garrison’s Political Views

        Garrison had entered Dachau the day after it was liberated, and was worried that the US was in “danger of slowly evolving into a proto–fascist state”.

    • Bill Hicks: JFK Assassination Routine

      The late comedian’s admiration for the accuracy of the Sixth–Floor Museum’s display and his interpretation of the “back and to the left” motion of President Kennedy’s head in reaction to the fatal shot.

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22 November 1963 : The Essential JFK Assassination Book

22 November 1963: A Brief Guide to the JFK Assassination

Experts and beginners alike will benefit from the essential book on the JFK assassination:

  • a readable and critical account of the central questions;
  • detailed analysis of important topics;
  • fully referenced: over 400 footnotes;
  • available as a paperback and ebook.

Find Out About

  • Lee Harvey Oswald — lone assassin, conspirator or patsy?
  • Oswald’s longstanding links to US intelligence agencies;
  • Oswald’s visit to Mexico City a few weeks before the assassination — the crucial event which caused the Warren Commission to be set up;
  • the official investigations — and why their answers are not widely believed;
  • the medical evidence — the reason why the case remains controversial;
  • the political context of the JFK assassination;
  • and the pros and cons of the main theories associated with the event.

Praise for 22 November 1963

“A must read for any serious JFK researcher … well written, comprehensive and concise.”
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“The single best book on the assassination … by far the clearest and most concise examination of the topic … If you were to read only one book on the assassination, this would have to be the one.”
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“Excellent. Factual, precise and clearly written. A really great introduction to the complexities of this case.”
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